What makes an author grumpy?

poodle & drone

Well, to be precise, lots of things, but I’ve got some specifics that I’d like to discuss.

Cold coffee – this intellectual fuel is best served hot. The major problem is that when I’m “in the flow” and writing as quickly as I can, I forget to drink it and it cools off. Self-made problem, so I can’t blame anyone else, but you’d think someone would come up with a self-heating cup.

Interruptions – This is self-explanatory. What isn’t is why when you’re concentrating on hammering out a particularly difficult section, you somehow become a magnet for interruptions. Everyone in the immediate vicinity seems to suddenly develop a problem or have a question that only you can solve or answer. This goes for text messages also. I’ve just gotten about fifteen-mostly useless. Still, being generous, this is self-made, since I should make it clear beforehand that I was writing and did not want to be disturbed. But, but how was I to know that the urge to figuratively vomit words all over my computer screen was going to hit me? One doesn’t always have the luxury of planning this sort of thing. It seems to just happen.

Guilt – Should be writing, but I’ve got to finish this last game of solitaire. If I could, I’d go back in time and ensure the parents of the person who invented solitaire never met. (Sub-note: Still feeling guilty even as I write this screed. I should be spending this energy on my WIP. I’ve left my hero in lunar orbit, about to be faced with another situation and he’s expecting me to write it.)

Marketing – I’m always grumpy whenever I think of this topic. Point one: I don’t understand it very well. Point two: It takes a lot of time and effort to climb the learning curve. Point three: I feel like I should be creating a story rather than studying audience targeting. Point four: I should be working on it right now, rather than spending time writing about my frustrations. Incidentally, writing this blog post counts as marketing to a certain extent. You know, reader engagement and so on. Plus, it’s keeping me from having to go do yard work:-)

Reviews – Authors want reviews. There’s no substitute. We live in an isolated shell, sending our work out into the void and waiting for some tiny clue that someone appreciates it. I depend on user feedback to determine if I write a sequel. It’s a thin line, too. I wrote a sequel (All the Moments in Forever) to Heart of Fire Time of Ice based on one single review that asked for more of Kathleen’s story. One single review! Readers do make a difference and have more control than they know.

While I’m on the subject of reviews, here’s a couple of points that other authors will appreciate. I recently got a three star review from a confused reader who apparently had read another book. Not one of the rather derogatory things he mentioned was in my story. For example, he stated that the last episode in the book involved time travel. My book Pirates of the Asteroids doesn’t use any form of time travel. He also mentioned some rather clumsy plot devices that I would never use. I asked Amazon to check it out, since I think such a review doesn’t serve potential readers well, but you know Amazon. No action apparently means they are okay with the situation. Take home lesson: Make sure you’re reviewing the right book. (Frankly, I don’t know how you’d make such a mistake, but apparently it can happen.)

Then there are reviews that aren’t. Things like, “I love Kindle books.” or “This story was about prehistoric times.” Yeah. Helpful. My favorite was, “This story wasn’t my style.” Great, pray tell what is your style, and if you know, why did you waste time reading something that has a fairly descriptive blurb and allows previews? If you didn’t like it, let other readers know why. It could help them decide to buy or not to buy. The point of a review is to contribute to the community. Placeholders aren’t particularly useful.

I’ve also received a few bad reviews on different books from people who didn’t take the time to read past chapter three. They then proceeded to discuss the book as if they knew what happened in later chapters. I console myself that no matter what you write, no matter how good or bad it is, some people will absolutely hate it (and by extension, you) and others will love it (though probably not you:-)

The commonly accepted advice is not to comment on reviews, but I violated that in the first example above. I left a comment thanking the reader for his effort in reviewing. Then I stated that I’d love his feedback, but apparently the review was for another book. I was quite nice in my tone. Then I got to thinking about how many times I’ve gone back and reread my own reviews of various products. The number of times is precisely zero, so the chance he gets the message is very low. Don’t know why I bothered, unless some potential reader will see it and be influenced.

As for the bad reviews, if they’re well-intentioned and point out a possible flaw in the story, I see no harm in thanking the reviewer. If they’re vitriol filled and include personal attacks, then that’s nature’s warning not to engage with the reviewer. They have other issues that you’ll never fix.

That’s it. I’ve got an appointment with my writing computer (use a different machine dedicated to that purpose).

By the way, if you’ve read one of my books and have left a review (good, bad, or indifferent), thank you for your effort. I do read them.

Namaste!

Eric

Nano-Magic

Nano-Magic is the must-read sequel to CyberWitch, winner of the Silver FAPA Presidents Medal for Adult Science Fiction and Fantasy.

The world has been changed forever with the advent of the singularity. The escape of two AIs with greater than human intelligence divided the human population into two groups: The ordinary people, who cannot control the trillions of nanobots that have spread over the globe, and the few who can control nanite swarms, thus giving them powers indistinguishable from magic. Genetically modified creatures in the form of uplifted animals, weres, fairies, and more roam the wilds.

Sophie, known as the CyberWitch and the originator of the method of control, has come a long way from her down-and-out days as a drug addict. After beating her addiction, she has found love and a cause. Now, she is engaged in a self-imposed war on the nanite-based AI that views humans as nothing more than convenient meat slaves to be disposed of casually. Sophie has met all the challenges she’s encountered so far, but a new one has arisen. She’s about to reach a roadblock in her path to make the world safe for humans, and she’s going to need all the help she can muster.

This novel is a wild ride that will have the reader turning pages non-stop until they reach the surprising conclusion.

On Writing: Adding a spiritual element to your fiction: OBEs and Lucid Dreams

This post is generally related to world-building for authors, but with a twist. I’ve included a lot of background material on Lucid Dreams and Out-of-Body Experiences. I began studying these many years ago after an intensely personal experience that both frightened and puzzled me. As a trained scientist, I had no ready explanation. This led me to read all I could find on the subject.

Science continually discovers new things about the universe. If everything were settled and known, there would be no need for scientific inquiry. The experiences I’m going to describe are well documented by many people, and their accounts are consistent enough to allow us to draw some general conclusions. I think that if there’s no accepted scientific explanation, but there is enough anecdotal evidence, then a scientific explanation should be sought.

As part of my own exploration of these phenomena, I kept a journal by my bed for many years. I’ll provide some examples taken from it and then analyze them to help clarify the concepts.

After I’ve gone through the types of dreams and associated experiences, I will give an example of how I incorporated the idea into one of my Time-Equation Series books.

Lucid Dreams

Have you ever had a dream of falling or flying? Many people have these types of dreams. How about a dream where you believe you’re awake, but you cannot move your body? These dreams are almost always indicative of an out-of-body experience or a lucid dream. Here’s an example from my journal:

About 4 a.m. I woke up, changed position, and then fell back asleep. I was walking down a sidewalk carrying a U-shaped piece of metal. There was a large pile of rocks located on the edge of a college campus. I went around them and entered a very small cave through a small opening. There was a bed inside. It had drawers under it, and I began looking into them but found nothing of interest, just some vague pieces of machinery.

Then I became aware that there was an old-fashioned kitchen range beside the bed. It had drawers, and I looked in them also. I’m not sure what I was looking for, but whatever it was, it wasn’t there. At this point, I saw a dark door at one end of the cave.

I went through, and suddenly the quality of the dream transitioned to a closer approximation of reality because I became aware that I was dreaming. As a result, I became “conscious” within the dream and had control of my actions.

I looked around at the room that was on the other side of the dark door. It looked like a large, dimly lit barn. There was another door to the right side of the room, and it was very dark. I looked inside the opening and made out the fact that it was a stall for horses, but there were no animals there. To the left, the room became lighter, and there was a large door that was open to the outside. I consciously bypassed that door since I felt that I would wake up if I went through it. After looking around the rest of the barn and deciding that I was satisfied and had seen everything, I decided to go outside. I jumped off a high step and landed right in front of a young man. Our eyes met, and we both smiled.

Was he another dreamer or a figment of my dream? I don’t know. I certainly didn’t expect to see him there. I walked past and turned to the left on the far end of the building. The dream faded, and I lost control and fell entirely out of consciousness and into sleep.

A brief analysis of this dream shows that it 1) started as a normal dream, perhaps clearer and more coherent than most, and then at a certain point, 2) I became aware that I was able to control my actions consciously. This is different than most dreams because we usually aren’t aware that we are dreaming, and we typically aren’t able to control what we do.

There is a slight difference here between my experience and most lucid dreams. In this dream, I didn’t exert any control over the elements in the dream. Usually, lucid dreamers are able to modify anything they encounter in their dreams. Many exercise a significant degree of control, forcing items to mutate or disappear and appear.

After I became conscious in this dream, I had a feeling of happiness and freedom. This was partly due to my sense of mastery of the environment.

I met someone in the dream who appeared to be self-directed. Was he another dreamer? This is an intriguing possibility.

Other people who have had lucid dreams report similar experiences. The critical aspect is that all of us can become conscious and then to control our actions within a dream.

Out of Body Experiences

There are different opinions as to what differentiates a lucid dream from an out-of-body experience (OBE). Lucid dreams can involve any dream environment, while OBEs often involve what I call the RTE, or Real-Time Environment. This is the local space near the dreamer’s body. It is usually the first space they encounter after exiting their body. Their physical body is often present and visible to them. In general, OBEs seem more real than Lucid Dreams and are usually experienced as an objective but different reality.

The first sign of an OBE is that it is often accompanied by an intense sensation of vibration. The second is that it may be accompanied by physical body paralysis. The third is that the dreamer may see their physical body, and the fourth is they find it easy to fly and to pass through physical barriers like walls. Also, OBEs are often accompanied by experienced sounds. Some people wake into these experiences, while others induce OBEs directly from a waking state.

These experiences require a Theta brain state. This is known as the hypnagogic state, the drowsing state before sleep when the brain waves are at a frequency between 4 and 8 cycles per second.

It’s difficult to maintain a hypnagogic state for very long after first going to bed. Most people go through several cycles of deeper sleep followed by lighter sleep or wakefulness in the course of a night. After two or three such sleep cycles it becomes easier to maintain a hypnagogic state. Consequentially you are more likely to have an OBE or lucid dream between 4 and 6 AM.

There is an experiential difference between the OBEs and Lucid Dreams. Despite the extreme freedom of movement enjoyed while experiencing an OBE, it is more like daily experience, since we can’t deliberately morph items into other items the way we can in a lucid dream.

Validating an OBE

Australian author Robert Bruce and psychic suggests that you select a playing card from a deck, making sure you don’t see the card’s face. Place the card on a high shelf somewhere in your house. The shelf should be high enough that you won’t accidentally see the card. When you find yourself in an OBE, remember to go and look at the card. You can then validate your experience when you wake up.

I tried this by placing two cards, one on each of two bookshelves on each side of our fireplace. I was drowsing before getting up.

I rolled over onto my left side and then started to go back to sleep. I suddenly became conscious that my face was bumping against the spines of a long row of books. I realized that I was having an OBE and was near the bookshelf. Then I remembered the cards, so looked and saw that the card was a black four. However, when I tried to see the suit, all I could see was a rectangle with a diagonal line crossing it, the international symbol for “No” that masks a picture of some banned action. After trying to see the suit again, I woke up.

When I checked, the card was the four of spades. The second card surprised me. It was the four of clubs.

The shelves were separated by about two meters, and the cards were on the top shelf above my head level. After thinking about the two fours for a bit, I realized that I couldn’t make out the suit because I’d somehow been trying to see both cards simultaneously and the only commonality was the black four.

This leads me to conclude that our perception is not restricted to natural bodily-imposed limitations.

Common Aspects of OBE

Somewhat more recently, I had another experience that illustrates four of the common symptoms of OBEs. Here’s a brief description:

I was drowsing in a recliner in the bedroom when I suddenly heard my name loudly called twice in a sort of nasal tone. I immediately decided to wake up and became conscious while still in a dream state. I couldn’t move my body or extremities. I know that to recover from this type of paralysis, concentrating on moving your big toe almost always works as a release. I was too panicked to remember this technique at the time. Then I saw that I was floating about 2 feet above my body. I kept trying to merge back into it with no effect.

Suddenly, there was a loud buzz that happened on the surface of my chest right over my heart. It was so startling that I popped back into my body and opened my eyes at the same time.

A brief analysis highlights the four common symptoms. First, I heard a sound–my name. Second, I experienced physical paralysis. Third, I was floating outside my body, and fourth, I experienced a strong buzz or vibration before re-entering my body.

I subsequently read that this type of vibration is attributable to the heart chakra becoming active and releasing enough energy to either start or stop the OBE.

Another experience highlights a few of the features of a typical flying OBE.

I was still sleeping after the sun had risen. Then I shot upwards to what seemed about a thousand feet above the roof of my house. I descended to tree level and proceeded to cruise down our drive and then up near the leaves of a tree. I moved closer to the leaves until I could concentrate on the details of a single leaf. I was elated over the sensation of absolute freedom of movement. Without consciously willing it, I started to become heavy and sank to the ground. Once on the ground, I couldn’t begin flying again. I woke up, regretful that the experience, which had been joyful, was so brief.

There are four aspects of this experience that are common. The first is that I was able to fly easily. The second is that I let my emotions run out of control. The third is that I focused my attention on intricate details and this close focus forced me out of the OBE. The fourth is the feeling of heaviness. Most people attribute this to the physical body recalling the astral body.

Dreaming, lucid dreaming, and OBE states can easily transition from one to the other. However, despite that mutability, the quality of experience is different, and the dreamer can easily sense this difference.

Induced OBEs

The dominant frequency in the EEG pattern is indicative of the current state of the brain. Meditation involves altering one’s brain frequency to a desired state on demand. It can take years to learn the techniques of meditation, but the same effect may be induced artificially since brain waves can be altered by listening to tone frequencies.

Listening to a click played at 4 Hz will cause brainwaves to slow down to the same frequency. This phenomenon is called entrainment or frequency following response. It can be done by playing a series of percussive sounds that gradually slow down to the theta wave level of 4 per second.

An alternate method is to play a pure low-frequency sound. The brain will adjust to match. This works for faster brainwaves but is ineffective for slower brain states because humans cannot hear extremely low frequencies. A special technique called binaural-beats is used to generate the required slow signals.

Parallel Universe Theory

The concept of parallel universes is supported to a certain extent by modern quantum physics. One interpretation states that the universe splits every time there is a choice made on a quantum level. If a photon has the alternative of going through one slit or a second slit in the classic double-slit experiment, it will go through one in one universe and through the other in a second universe. The two universes may then merge into a single universe or not.

Based on this idea, it seems to me, since our brains operate at least partially on a quantum level, that any binary decision we make would result in two universes.

If this is the case, it means that we don’t emerge from our body in the same universe in which our body resides. This removes some limitations and appears to allow our projected mind to move into various levels of the real-time environment as reported by many OBE experiencers.

Writing an OBE into a Story

In one of my novels, my male lead is a Clovis-culture hunter of about 13,000 years ago. While I was writing the book, I, purely by chance, had a rather amazing lucid dream. It was so vivid that I wrote it down and later when it became necessary to give Cadeyrin (my character) a motive for backtracking, I blended my experience into the story.

It took several rewrites to get it right, but after I finished, I had added an entire chapter in which Cadeyrin, previously trained as a Shaman, is able to determine the location of Kathleen Whitby, my modern female lead, who has accidentally translated through time to the Younger Dryas Period of the North American Pleistocene.

As an example, here’s a brief section (Copyright 2016) from chapter eight of Heart of Fire Time of Ice. I used italics to indicate where Cadeyrin entered an altered mental state.


Cadeyrin tentatively started off towards the flickering light along an old bison path worn in the prairie grass. After a few steps, he became aware that a friendly animal spirit was leading him.

Wolves suddenly howled in the near distance. The eerie sound led him to recognize his guide as his personal wolf spirit.

Together he and the spirit walked through the grass until they came to a rise, which they ascended. On the other side was the open space with his fire in the middle. It had burned down in his absence and was guttering, sending out flickers of flame as the wind ignited gasses rising from the coals. As he stepped into the open space, he sensed other spiritual entities around the area, but none intruded on his immediate consciousness.

The wolves came closer as he built up the fire, but he felt no threat from them. It was as if they were just curious about his presence and waiting to see what would happen.

The flames grew high, and his spirit guide took on a feeling of wildness mixed with joy. He followed it as it led him on a triple circuit around the fire. The flames shot out sparks, and a larger burst of flame ascended. At that moment, his companion shifted into a huge wolf-like figure. Together they raised their heads and howled upwards, and then he was following the spirit guide, traveling through the sky, far away from the fire circle.

His sense of being accompanied faded, and he ended up in a high location, as if on the peak of an immense mountain. As he looked down, he could see through both time and space. He could see his childhood: his father teaching him to hunt, one of the old women teaching him about medicinal plants, and the tribe’s path across the plains as they came from the east. He could see their excitement as they encountered herds of bison, and he felt the fullness and satiety after a successful hunt. He could see the attackers as they killed his people while he watched, hidden. He saw his path to this current place. He saw himself by his fire and then he could see his path winding into the future. He traveled towards a forest, then back, then a figure appeared, but it was unclear and hazy. He followed it, and it receded into the future. He paused, and it came back. He felt that somehow it gave him a sense of completeness and he yearned for more of that feeling.


I used many of the traditional aspects of the OBE experience in my description.

The scene is intriguing and compelling precisely because it is authentic, having been taken in large part from my own experience. That authenticity gives the reader a sense that Cadeyrin is real. He becomes a character to whom one can easily relate.

This relates to the old advice to “write what you know.” In my experience, this makes for good reading, but it also seems restrictive to may authors. After all, who has traveled in space, or met the spider aliens from Arcturus 5?

My best advice is to search for situations that you know and then use your imagination to morph them into your story. It’s your story, after all, and you’ve got the right to tell it how you want. Just remember, the more authentic it is, the more compelling it is to read.

I hope you found this discussion both interesting and useful.
Thanks for reading.
Namaste.

Eric

Some observations on Reader Feedback

It’s funny how many people read my books and yet fail to leave a review or even rate them. Amazon seems to run on ratings and I have very few. I keep searching for ways to get more, but nothing seems to work very well.

I read every reader’s comments, good and not so good, even the ones from would-be readers who are horribly offended by something I wrote. I’m sorry about that, but I’m not a ‘safe’ writer. I deal with reality as I see it and few topics are out of bounds as long as I’m enjoying the story I’m telling. Most readers seem to expect a riveting tale and various types of mayhem mixed with a little sex doesn’t offend them. I don’t pull punches, although I haven’t “killed the dog” yet (advice that is often offered to writers: Don’t kill the dog.” That’s probably because dogs don’t like that – neither do people. I don’t kill cats either, just in case you were wondering.) I just keep trying to become a better writer and tell compelling stories.

I’ve come to the conclusion that a reader shouldn’t have to leave a review – it’s an imposition to ask for some of someone’s time in this busy world. I opt out of Internet surveys from vendors when I can, so I can sympathize with my readers.

My only request is, if you like my stories, then please recommend them to your friends. I spend months creating the best story I can for my novels and then spend a lot on cover art and editing, because I’m dedicated to providing you with the best reading experience possible.

I still love feedback, though:-)

Namaste
Eric
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Here’s a review of my most recent novel: Cyber-Witch. The first cover didn’t work and I got very few sales. I’ve now changed the cover to one more representative of the cyber-punk genre andCyber Witch thumbnai newl I’m currently working on a sequel to this tale, since the characters weren’t content with where I left them.

***** 4.0 out of 5 stars
A thrilling cyberpunk tale
February 18, 2018
Format: Kindle Edition
In the not-too-distant future, Sophie, a young woman with a debilitating addiction to opiates, finds a new chance at life in a good Samaritan who takes her in and helps her battle her addiction. Cal, a hacker, also teaches Sophie how to code, and she soon becomes a decent hacker as well. But their cyber-adventures lead them to cross the wrong people… which leads to devastating consequences. Determined to get revenge, Sophie infiltrates the powerful company behind the attack — and learns that there’s more at stake than she bargained for.

Cyber Witch is a thrilling cyberpunk tale full of twists and turns. Sophie is an unlikely and sympathetic heroine — one who must battle personal demons as well as the external forces she stumbles upon. I don’t want to say too much about what happens because a great part of the thrill lies in the unexpected twists, but suffice it to say that this story didn’t go the way I thought it would… in a good way.

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Typography makes a difference – Who’da thunk it?

I just had the typography changed on my time travel novels. Immediately below are the original covers.

Timetraveltweet image1

and

Here are the new ones.compilation-time equation novels

It’s easy to see the books are related and part of a series with the new typography. They were missing that before.

You can put that error down to inexperience in book marketing. I want to provide interesting and compelling stories for my readers and that is the goal for which I strive. The problem is that people won’t read books unless the cover attracts them.

I think the new look makes a big difference and I hope you do also.

I’ve learned a big lesson here. I’ve got to pay more attention to the cover wording and not just the artwork.

——————————–

The three books are on sale from 2/18/18 to 2/21/18 for $0.99 each on Kindle.

 

Creatures from Heart of Fire Time of Ice

Kathleen cameo ready

Kathleen

PLEISTOCENE MEGA-FAUNA NOTES

I had a good time working with the prehistoric animals mentioned in my story Heart of Fire Time of Ice. Who isn’t intrigued with creatures such as saber-tooth tigers? (Well, maybe not everyone.)

I couldn’t weave every possible animal into the story, but I used a number of the larger and more prominent ones that I thought my readers would be likely to know.

I made an effort to have the animals behave in ways that are consistent with what we know about them based on similar modern species. My description of their behavior is based on my imagination only and not to be taken as factual.

The saber-tooth tigers’ habits are still a matter of great speculation. No one has been able to satisfactorily explain how they used their enormous canines. The lengthy teeth seem to have been too fragile for the type of hunting techniques used by most of today’s big cats.

I made the assumption that the saber-toothed cats were more like lions and hunted primarily in groups. This would seem to be a necessity, considering the large size of many of the prey animals of the period.

One idea that I took into consideration was that the large numbers of herbivores would inevitably lead to numerous predators. It seems to me that humans of the period would be exposed to a lot of random predation. The large predators most likely wouldn’t actively seek out humans, but they most assuredly wouldn’t turn down a tasty snack, if they happened upon one.

In the next section, you’ll find a partially annotated list of Pleistocene animals. I’ve made some notes on animals that are not commonly known. Not all of them found their way into the plot. In addition, the list is not exhaustive, nor is it in the order in which the animals appear in the story.

MEGA-FAUNA AND OTHER ANIMALS

This section contains a partial list of animals that early North American humans might have encountered. It is not intended to be complete.

  • Birds – Grouse and other upland game birds, along with most of the ancestors of today’s birds, including many species of ducks and geese. Birds of prey, such as eagles, would have been more common.

  • Bison – Two species existed in America

  • Black Bear – The common black bear would be larger due to the necessity of surviving in the colder climate

  • Giant short-faced bear – six-feet at the shoulder when standing on all fours. This bear would have been the most dangerous, single predator. It would have been very difficult to kill using Paleolithic weapons. It would have been possibly one-third to one-half larger than modern polar bears.

    chapter 19 illustration

    Giant Short-Faced Bear (artist’s conception)

  • Giant Beaver

  • Grizzly Bear – as dangerous to humans then as it is today

  • Lesser short-faced bear – Closer to grizzly size. Bears were a valuable source of meat and fat for early settlers. Early accounts reveal that they were an important food for American Indians. They frequently diced up venison (which is very lean) and fried it in bear fat. One would expect the Clovis people to have done the same.

  • Bobcat

  • Western Camel – the Western Camel was a migrating herd animal

  • Cave Lion – Pantera Atrox – The American Cave Lion was 40% larger than modern African Lions

  • Cheetah – The American Cheetah was unrelated to today’s African Cheetah. It was larger than modern cheetahs.

  • Giant Condor

  • Coyote – possibly a little larger than modern coyotes

  • Deer of various species

  • Dire wolf – more closely related to coyotes than gray wolves. Larger and heavier than gray wolves.

    chapter 15 illustration direwolf

    Dire Wolf

  • Fish – many species, including the Saber-tooth Salmon which was nine-feet long

  • Fox

  • Glyptotherium – A giant armadillo-like creature; probably a swamp dweller and unlikely to occur near the glaciers

  • Homotherium – unique hyena-like scimitar-toothed cats that were probably pack hunters, smaller than Smilodon

    chapter 10 illustration homotherium

    Homotherium (artist’s conception)

  • Horse – became extinct in America, only to be re-introduced by the Spanish

  • Jaguar – Larger than modern Jaguars

  • Llama – at least two species, herd animals

  • Lynx –This small, solitary hunter was also larger than modern versions.

  • Mammoth – various species of which the Columbian Mammoth is the one referred to in the story. It could weigh upwards of 20,000 pounds.

  • Mastodon – smaller than the mammoths. They most likely either lived a solitary life or lived in small groups

  • Muskox

  • Puma/Mountain lion – probably larger than the modern animal

  • Rabbit and other rodents

  • Skunk and other mustelids such as weasels, etc. Wolverines would have been an occasional danger to humans. They’ve been known to kill both wolves and bears.

  • Smilodon Fatalis – nearly African lion sized, bulky, ambush predators with six-inch fangs

    saber tooth cameo

    Smilodon Fatalis (artist’s conception)

  • Giant ground sloth – ten feet tall or more with huge claws – probably found singly or with cubs, but not in groups

  • Peccary – small pigs, found today in the American Southwest

  • Pronghorn – 14 species existed; only one exists today

  • Saiga – antelope

  • Tapir – most likely swamp-dwelling and unlikely to be far north

  • Wolf – Gray wolves might have been about the size of today’s Gray wolf. While there are other species of wolf in America, the story restricts itself to the Gray Timber Wolf.

    chapter 5 illustration wolf puppy

    Sleeping Gray Wolf Puppy

Today, in contrast to the Pleistocene period, the largest North American land animal is the American Bison. The largest predator is the Polar Bear, followed by the Kodiak Bear. A Giant Short-faced bear (illustration above) would probably be almost one-quarter larger than a polar bear.

To a human, either would be a fearsome predator, although not invulnerable. The Inuit used primitive weapons to kill polar bears and the Clovis culture probably would have done the same.